Having completed an appraisal of the problem, the analysis from Step 1 should lead to a clearer statement of the problem as well as identification of one, or probably several, desired goals/outcomes as a result of the reform initiative.
Goals should reflect the desired change in women’s and girls’ lives
A goal statement should reflect the change in women’s and girls’ lives that will result from the programme once implemented. Programmes focused on engaging the justice sector relative to violence against women often reflect these common goals:
Writing goals in a specific way so as to reflect a human-rights-based approach can help ensure a programme’s success is measurable and meaningful.
Taking the examples above, instead of stating that the programme will “reduce corruption,” a rights-based approach would describe the goal as: “Women victims of violence are able to access the justice mechanism of their choice and receive a timely, effective remedy without having to pay bribes or provide other inducements to decision-makers and gatekeepers.”
See an example of specific goals and objectives for a judicial training programme.
Prioritizing goals maximizes programme effectiveness
If the appraisal leads to multiple desired goals, planners will need to prioritize. The following considerations and guidelines may help in that process (UNDP, 2005, pp.27-28):
It can be difficult to focus in on a manageable project, especially when an appraisal of the sector reveals multiple issues that all affect women’s and girls’ safety and human rights. Including stakeholders and community members in the process of prioritizing desired outcomes is an important step and can help generate buy-in up front for programming initiatives.
One method of participatory prioritization is pair-wise ranking. This method allows communities and stakeholders to systematically examine an array of issues and come to conclusions about which issues are most critical.
Another method for prioritizing goals and associated activities is visualizing the situation in terms of pits and ladders.
Pits and Ladders Instructions (CARE, 2004)
Using a simple ladder image, organizations can describe the problem they are facing as a pit that they need to climb out of through programme activities. The goal is the ground at the top of the pit, the place where the community will arrive once successful programming is implemented. The rungs on the ladder represent the steps that the programme will undertake to make the desired change.