Throughout this knowledge module, reference to certain provisions or sections of a piece of legislation, part of a legal judgment, or aspect of a practice does not imply that the legislation, judgment, or practice is considered in its entirety to be a good example or a promising practice.

Some of the laws cited herein may contain provisions which authorize the death penalty. In light of the United Nations General Assembly resolutions 62/14963/16865/206, and 67/176 calling for a moratorium on and ultimate abolition of capital punishment, the death penalty should not be included in sentencing provisions for crimes of violence against women and girls.

Other Provisions Related to Domestic Violence LawsResources for Developing Legislation on Domestic Violence
Sexual Harassment in Sport Tools for Drafting Sexual Harassment Laws and Policies
Immigration Provisions Resources for developing legislation on sex trafficking of women and girls
Child Protection Provisions Resources on Forced and Child Marriage
Other provisions related to dowry-related and domestic violence laws
Related Tools

Teachers/Staff Harassing Students

Last edited: January 13, 2011

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Sexual harassment in education may be explicitly prohibited or may be subsumed by legislation that prohibits harassment in any relationship of dependency or special trust.

  • Estonia’s Gender Equity Act defines sexual harassment as taking place “in any subordinate or dependent relationship, any form of unwanted verbal, non-verbal or physical activity or conduct of a sexual nature occurs, with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, in particular when creating a disturbing, intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment…” (Ch. 1, art.3(5)).
  • Israel’s law, taking a middle approach, makes special provision for “a minor or a helpless person, where a relationship of authority, dependence, education or treatment is being exploited.” (See: Prevention of Sexual Harassment Law, Art. 3(a)(6)(a))
  • Criminal law in Kenya specifically addresses teachers and other school staff. Kenya’s Sexual Offences Act, sec. 24(4), provides for a prison sentence of not less than ten years for:

any person who being the head teacher, teacher or employee in a primary or secondary school or special institution of learning whether formal or informal, takes advantage of his or her official position and induces or seduces a pupil or student to have sexual intercourse with him or commits any other offence under this Act, such sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of rape or defilement.

  • In the UK, the Sexual Offences Act, Part 1, sec.sec.16, 21-22, makes any sexual relationship, sexual touching, and several other types of sexual activity criminal when an adult is in a position of trust in relation to a child, including a teacher or staff in an educational institution.

 Legislation should clearly state that prohibition of sexual harassment applies equally to teachers and to other adults in the educational setting. Sweden’s law specifies that “employees and contractors engaged in [educational] activities shall be equated with the education provider when they are acting within the context of their employment contract.” See: Discrimination Act, Ch. 1, sec. 5.


In the West African country of Benin, harassment of girls in school has been commonplace. Approximately half of girls in Benin enroll in school and many end up dropping out because of the hostile environment created by continual pressure for sexual favors from teachers or fellow students. Girls who report sexual harassment often are accused of leading a teacher on and may be forced to drop out of school by parents as a result. See: USAID Women’s Legal Rights Initiative, Annual Report on Good Practices, Lessons Learned, and Success Stories, 12, 2006; Benin bans harassment, WILPF, July 26, 2006. With the long-term support of international partners and in consultation with civil society, Benin in 2006 passed a broad law aimed at preventing and punishing sexual harassment of women and girls. The law clearly targets the educational setting. Under the new law, judges can order specific measures of support and care for child victims of harassment, including placement in a new supportive educational setting and monetary support for the minor victim. These special measures for care for harassed children can be reopened for judicial review at any time upon request of the child’s parent or guardian. The law also specifies a range of penalties and states that for harassment of minors the maximum penalty should be imposed. See: Loi sur le Harcelement Sexuel, 2006.